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  • Activity energy expenditure is a major determinant of dietary fat oxidation and trafficking, but the deleterious effect of detraining is more marked than the beneficial effect of training at current recommendations.

Activity energy expenditure is a major determinant of dietary fat oxidation and trafficking, but the deleterious effect of detraining is more marked than the beneficial effect of training at current recommendations.

The American journal of clinical nutrition (2013-08-02)
Audrey Bergouignan, Iman Momken, Etienne Lefai, Edwina Antoun, Dale A Schoeller, Carine Platat, Isabelle Chery, Alexandre Zahariev, Hubert Vidal, Laure Gabert, Sylvie Normand, Damien Freyssenet, Martine Laville, Chantal Simon, Stephane Blanc
ABSTRACT

Previous studies suggested that physical activity energy expenditure (AEE) is a major determinant of dietary fat oxidation, which is a central component of fat metabolism and body weight regulation. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effect of contrasted physical activity levels on dietary saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid oxidation in relation to insulin sensitivity while controlling energy balance. Sedentary lean men (n = 10) trained for 2 mo according to the current guidelines on physical activity, and active lean men (n = 9) detrained for 1 mo by reducing structured and spontaneous activity. Dietary [d31]palmitate and [1-¹³C]oleate oxidation and incorporation into triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acid, AEE, and muscle markers were studied before and after interventions. Training increased palmitate and oleate oxidation by 27% and 20%, respectively, whereas detraining reduced them by 31% and 13%, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). Changes in AEE were positively correlated with changes in oleate (R² = 0.62, P < 0.001) and palmitate (R² = 0.66, P < 0.0001) oxidation. The d31-palmitate appearance in nonesterified fatty acid and very-low-density lipoprotein pools was negatively associated with changes in fatty acid translocase CD36 (R² = 0.30), fatty acid transport protein 1 (R² = 0.24), and AcylCoA synthetase long chain family member 1 (ACSL1) (R² = 0.25) expressions and with changes in fatty acid binding protein expression (R² = 0.33). The d31-palmitate oxidation correlated with changes in ACSL1 (R² = 0.39) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (R² = 0.30) expressions (P < 0.05 for all). Similar relations were observed with oleate. Insulin response was associated with AEE (R² = 0.34, P = 0.02) and oleate (R² = 0.52, P < 0.01) and palmitate (R² = 0.62, P < 001) oxidation. Training and detraining modified the oxidation of the 2 most common dietary fats, likely through a better trafficking and uptake by the muscle, which was negatively associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, suitable for cell culture, BioReagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, meets analytical specification of Ph, Eur., 65.0-88.0% (GC)
Supelco
Oleic acid, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, natural, FCC
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, technical grade, 90%
Supelco
Oleic acid, Selectophore, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
S-Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae), lyophilized powder, ≥3 units/mg protein