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  • Propofol shares the binding site with isoflurane and sevoflurane on leukocyte function-associated antigen-1.

Propofol shares the binding site with isoflurane and sevoflurane on leukocyte function-associated antigen-1.

Anesthesia and analgesia (2013-08-21)
Koichi Yuki, Weiming Bu, Jin Xi, Motomu Shimaoka, Roderic Eckenhoff
ABSTRACT

We previously demonstrated that propofol interacted with the leukocyte adhesion molecule leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and inhibited the production of interleukin-2 via LFA-1 in a dependent manner. However, the binding site(s) of propofol on LFA-1 remains unknown. First, the inhibition of LFA-1's ligand binding by propofol was confirmed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ELISA-type assay. The binding site of propofol on LFA-1 was probed with a photolabeling experiment using a photoactivatable propofol analog called azi-propofol-m. The adducted residues of LFA-1 by this compound were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, the binding of propofol to the ligand-binding domain of LFA-1 was examined using 1-aminoanthracene (1-AMA) displacement assay. Furthermore, the binding site(s) of 1-AMA and propofol on LFA-1 was studied using the docking program GLIDE. We demonstrated that propofol impaired the binding of LFA-1 to its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The photolabeling experiment demonstrated that the adducted residues were localized in the allosteric cavity of the ligand-binding domain of LFA-1 called "lovastatin site." The shift of fluorescence spectra was observed when 1-AMA was coincubated with the low-affinity conformer of LFA-1 ligand-binding domain (wild-type [WT] αL I domain), not with the high-affinity conformer, suggesting that 1-AMA bound only to WT αL I domain. In the 1-AMA displacement assay, propofol decreased 1-AMA fluorescence signal (at 520 nm), suggesting that propofol competed with 1-AMA and bound to the WT αL I domain. The docking simulation demonstrated that both 1-AMA and propofol bound to the lovastatin site, which agreed with the photolabeling experiment. We demonstrated that propofol bound to the lovastatin site in LFA-1. Previously we showed that the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane bound to this site. Taken together, the lovastatin site is an example of the common binding sites for anesthetics currently used clinically.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Mevinolin from Aspergillus sp., ≥98% (HPLC)
Lovastatin, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sevoflurane, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Lovastatin for peak identification, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard