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Perinatal toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of styrene-acrylonitrile trimer, a ground water contaminant.

Toxicology (2013-09-26)
Mamta Behl, Susan A Elmore, David E Malarkey, Milton R Hejtmancik, Diane K Gerken, Rajendra S Chhabra
ABSTRACT

Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer is a by-product in the production of acrylonitrile styrene plastics. Following a report of a childhood cancer cluster in the Toms River section of Dover Township, New Jersey, SAN Trimer was identified as one of the groundwater contaminants at Reich Farm Superfund site in the township. The contaminants from the Reich Farm site's ground water plume impacted two wells at the Parkway well field. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) studied the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SAN Trimer in rats exposed during their perinatal developmental period and adulthood. The chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in F344/N rats were preceded by 7- and 18-week perinatal toxicity studies to determine the exposure concentrations for the 2-year studies. Subsequently, Fisher 344 pregnant dams were exposed to SAN Trimer containing diet at 400, 800, or 1600ppm concentrations during gestation, nursing and weaning periods of offspring followed by two year of adult exposures to both male and female pups. There was no statistically significant evidence of carcinogenic activity following SAN-Trimer exposure; however, rare neoplasms in the brain and spinal cord were observed in males and to lesser extent in female rats. These incidences were considered within the range of historical background in the animal model used in the current studies. Therefore, the presence of a few rarely occurring CNS tumors in the treated groups were not judged to be associated with the SAN Trimer exposure. The major finding was a dose-related peripheral neuropathy associated with the sciatic nerves in females and spinal nerve roots in males and females thereby suggesting that SAN Trimer is potentially a nervous system toxicant.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Styrene, ReagentPlus®, contains 4-tert-butylcatechol as stabilizer, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acrylonitrile, ≥99%, contains 35-45 ppm monomethyl ether hydroquinone as inhibitor
Supelco
Styrene, analytical standard
Supelco
Styrene, analytical standard
Supelco
Acrylonitrile, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Acrylonitrile, ≥99%, contains 35-45 ppm monomethyl ether hydroquinone as inhibitor
Supelco
Styrene solution, certified reference material, 200 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
Acrylonitrile solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol