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Physiological and molecular responses of springtails exposed to phenanthrene and drought.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) (2013-10-08)
Martin Holmstrup, Stine Slotsbo, Stine N Schmidt, Philipp Mayer, Christian Damgaard, Jesper G Sørensen
ABSTRACT

Interaction between effects of hazardous chemicals in the environment and adverse climatic conditions is a problem that receives increased attention in the light of climate change. We studied interactive effects of phenanthrene and drought using a test system in which springtails (Folsomia candida Willem) were concurrently exposed to a sublethal phenanthrene level via passive dosing from silicone (chemical activity of 0.010), and sublethal drought from aqueous NaCl solutions (water activity of 0.988). Previous studies have shown that the combined effects of high levels of phenanthrene and drought, respectively, interact synergistically when using lethality as an end-point. Here, we hypothesized that phenanthrene interferes with physiological mechanisms involved in drought tolerance, and that drought influences detoxification of phenanthrene. However, this hypothesis was not supported by data since phenanthrene had no effect on drought-protective accumulation of myo-inositol, and normal water conserving mechanisms of F. candida were functioning despite the near-lethal concentrations of the toxicant. Further, detoxifying induction of cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase was not impeded by drought. Both phenanthrene and drought induced transcription of heat shock protein (hsp70) and the combined effect of the two stressors on hsp70 transcription was additive, suggesting that the cellular stress and lethality imposed by these levels of phenanthrene and drought were also additive.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Phenanthrene solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Glutathione S-Transferase from equine liver, lyophilized powder, ≥25 units/mg protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenanthrene, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenanthrene, sublimed grade, ≥99.5%
Supelco
Phenanthrene, analytical standard, for environmental analysis
Supelco
Phenanthrene, certified reference material, TraceCERT®