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  • Resistant starch induces catabolic but suppresses immune and cell division pathways and changes the microbiome in the proximal colon of male pigs.

Resistant starch induces catabolic but suppresses immune and cell division pathways and changes the microbiome in the proximal colon of male pigs.

The Journal of nutrition (2013-10-18)
Daniëlle Haenen, Carol Souza da Silva, Jing Zhang, Sietse Jan Koopmans, Guido Bosch, Jacques Vervoort, Walter J J Gerrits, Bas Kemp, Hauke Smidt, Michael Müller, Guido J E J Hooiveld
ABSTRACT

Consumption of resistant starch (RS) has been associated with various intestinal health benefits, but knowledge of its effects on global gene expression in the colon is limited. The main objective of the current study was to identify genes affected by RS in the proximal colon to infer which biologic pathways were modulated. Ten 17-wk-old male pigs, fitted with a cannula in the proximal colon for repeated collection of tissue biopsy samples and luminal content, were fed a digestible starch (DS) diet or a diet high in RS (34%) for 2 consecutive periods of 14 d in a crossover design. Analysis of the colonic transcriptome profiles revealed that, upon RS feeding, oxidative metabolic pathways, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and β-oxidation, were induced, whereas many immune response pathways, including adaptive and innate immune system, as well as cell division were suppressed. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ was identified as a potential key upstream regulator. RS significantly (P < 0.05) increased the relative abundance of several butyrate-producing microbial groups, including the butyrate producers Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Megasphaera elsdenii, and reduced the abundance of potentially pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira and the phylum Proteobacteria. Concentrations in carotid plasma of the 3 main short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate were significantly higher with RS consumption compared with DS consumption. Overall, this study provides novel insights on effects of RS in proximal colon and contributes to our understanding of a healthy diet.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Starch, puriss. p.a., from potato, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., soluble
Supelco
Starch from corn, analytical standard, analytical standard for Starch Assay Kits SA-20 and STA-20
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Starch from rice
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch, from potato, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from potato, suitable for electrophoresis
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Starch from corn, practical grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from corn, Unmodified waxy corn starch of essentially pure amylopectin; contains only trace amounts of amylose.
Supelco
Starch from corn, for use with Total Dietary Fiber Control Kit, TDF-C10
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Starch from wheat, Unmodified
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Starch from potato, Soluble
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Starch from potato, Powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Starch from corn