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Development of acute and chronic sediment bioassays with the harpacticoid copepod Quinquelaophonte sp.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety (2013-11-02)
Tristan J Stringer, Chris N Glover, Vaughan Keesing, Grant L Northcott, Sally Gaw, Louis A Tremblay
ABSTRACT

Reliable environmentally realistic bioassay methodologies are increasingly needed to assess the effects of environmental pollution. This study describes two estuarine sediment bioassays, one acute (96 h) and one chronic (14 d), with the New Zealand harpacticoid copepod Quinquelaophonte sp. utilising behavioural and reproductive endpoints. Spiked sediments were used to expose Quinquelaophonte sp. to three reference compounds representing important categories of estuarine chemical stressors: zinc (a metal), atrazine (a pesticide), and phenanthrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon). Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) were used to further characterise species responses. Acute sediment (sandy and low total organic content) 96 h EC50 values for the sublethal inhibition of mobility for zinc, atrazine and phenanthrene were 137, 5.4, and 2.6 µg/g, respectively. The chronic EC50 values for inhibition of reproduction (total offspring) were 54.5, 0.0083, and 0.067 µg/g for zinc, atrazine, and phenanthrene, respectively. For phenanthrene, a potentially novel mode of action was identified on reproduction. Quinquelaophonte sp. was found to be more sensitive than several other estuarine species indicating choice of test organism is important to characterising the effects of environmentally relevant levels of contamination. The bioassay sediment results demonstrate the sensitivity and suitability of Quinquelaophonte sp. as a tool for the assessment use of estuarine health.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Phenanthrene, sublimed grade, ≥99.5%
Supelco
Phenanthrene, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Supelco
Atrazine, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenanthrene, 98%
Supelco
Atrazine solution, 100 μg/mL in methanol, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
Phenanthrene, analytical standard, for environmental analysis
Supelco
Atrazine solution, 1000 μg/mL in methyl tert-butyl ether, certified reference material
Supelco
Atrazine, analytical standard
Supelco
Atrazine, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
Phenanthrene solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol