Several studies analyzed the associations of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms with urolithiasis risk in different ethnic groups. However, the results were inconclusive. To evaluate a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Pubmed, EMBASE, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Weipu Database were searched. Data were extracted independently by two investigators. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Twenty-three case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Significant associations between ApaI, BsmI, FokI, and TaqI polymorphisms and urolithiasis risk were observed. However, sensitivity analyses for BsmI and FokI polymorphisms indicated that the results were not reliable and credible. In addition, there was a significant association of the ApaI-TaqI haplotype with urolithiasis risk. This meta-analysis suggested that ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms in VDR gene were associated with urolithiasis risk.