The objective of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 supernatant (GR-1 SN) on lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm birth (PTB) and outputs of cytokines, chemokines, and progesterone in pregnant CD-1 mice. We compared PTB rates after intrauterine injection of lipopolysaccharide with and without previous GR-1 SN treatment. Cytokines and chemokines in the maternal plasma, myometrium, placenta, and amniotic fluid were examined with multiplex assay, and circulating maternal progesterone was measured with enzyme-linked immunoassay. Statistical significance was assessed with 2-tailed 1-way analysis of variance or analysis of variance on ranks. Fetal sex ratios in mice that delivered preterm were compared with those that delivered at term after lipopolysaccharide and GR-1 SN treatments. GR-1 SN reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced PTB by 43%. GR-1 SN significantly decreased the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, and -12p40, tumor necrosis factor-α, CCL4, and CCL5 in maternal plasma; IL-6, -12p70, -17, and -13 and tumor necrosis factor-α in myometrium; IL-6, -12p70, and -17 in placenta; and IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, CCL3, and CCL4 in amniotic fluid. Maternal plasma progesterone was reduced significantly after lipopolysaccharide injection with and without GR-1 SN pretreatment. There was no difference in fetal sex ratios between mice that delivered preterm and those that did not after lipopolysaccharide and GR-1 SN treatments. The supernatant of probiotic L rhamnosus GR-1 attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and PTB in vivo. GR-1 SN may confer therapeutic benefits in the prevention of infection-associated PTB by controlling systemic and intrauterine inflammation.