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Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folic acid, and vitamin A from fortified maize.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2013-12-18)
Diego Moretti, Ralf Biebinger, Maaike J Bruins, Birgit Hoeft, Klaus Kraemer
ABSTRACT

Several strategies appear suitable to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from fortified maize, and fortification per se will increase the intake of bioavailable iron and zinc. Corn masa flour or whole maize should be fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, and degermed corn flour should be fortified with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The choice of zinc fortificant appears to have a limited impact on zinc bioavailability. Phytic acid is a major inhibitor of both iron and zinc absorption. Degermination at the mill will reduce phytic acid content, and degermed maize appears to be a suitable vehicle for iron and zinc fortification. Enzymatic phytate degradation may be a suitable home-based technique to enhance the bioavailability of iron and zinc from fortified maize. Bioavailability experiments with low phytic acid-containing maize varieties have suggested an improved zinc bioavailability compared to wild-type counterparts. The bioavailability of folic acid from maize porridge was reported to be slightly higher than from baked wheat bread. The bioavailability of vitamin A provided as encapsulated retinyl esters is generally high and is typically not strongly influenced by the food matrix, but has not been fully investigated in maize.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Retinol, synthetic, ≥95% (HPLC), crystalline
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Folic acid, ≥97%
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Zinc, dust, <10 μm, ≥98%
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Supelco
Folic acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
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Folic acid, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥97%
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Zinc, purum, powder
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Zinc, powder, <150 μm, 99.995% trace metals basis
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Iron, ≥99%, reduced, powder (fine)
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Retinol, BioXtra, ≥97.5% (HPLC), ~3100 U/mg
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Carbonyl iron, ≥97% Fe basis
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Iron, powder, −325 mesh, 97%
Supelco
Retinol solution, 100 μg/mL ± 25% (Refer to COA) (Ethanol with 0.1% (w/v) BHT), ampule of 1 mL, reference material, Cerilliant®
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Zinc, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.9%, granular
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Folic acid, meets USP testing specifications
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Zinc, nanopowder, 40-60 nm avg. part. size, ≥99% trace metals basis
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Retinol, ≥95.0% (HPLC), ~2700 U/mg
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Zinc, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Folic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
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Iron, powder, <10 μm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
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Iron, nanopowder, 35-45 nm particle size, 99.5% trace metals basis
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Zinc, granular, 30-100 mesh, 99%
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Iron, puriss. p.a., carbonyl-Iron powder, low in magnesium and manganese compounds, ≥99.5% (RT)
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Iron, chips, 99.98% trace metals basis
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USP
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