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Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for intractable epilepsy and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex.

The Journal of pediatrics (2014-02-13)
Michael Cardamone, Danny Flanagan, David Mowat, Sean E Kennedy, Maya Chopra, John A Lawson
ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of oral mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in children and adolescents with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and intractable epilepsy or subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). Single-center series of 13 children and adolescents with TSC who received sirolimus or everolimus (mTOR inhibitors). The anticonvulsant response was evaluated in 7 patients with TSC and refractory seizures. Six patients with SEGAs were treated with either sirolimus or everolimus for nonsurgical management. SEGA volumes were assessed longitudinally using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging. Of the intractable seizure group (7 patients), 1 patient had >90% reduction, 4 had 50%-90% reduction, and 2 had <50% reduction. Three reported subjective improvements in learning. By 12 months of treatment, there were statistically significant reductions in the SEGA volumes in 4 patients who received mTOR inhibitors (P < .04). The mean SEGA volume after 6 months of treatment was 2.18 cm(3), which represents 33% reduction in the mean baseline volume of 3.26 cm(3). The mTOR inhibitors were well tolerated. Adverse effects include dyslipidaemia (3 of 13), gingivitis (1 of 13), anorexia (1 of 13), and mild gastrointestinal side effects (1 of 13). This case series suggests that mTOR inhibitors can improve seizures in those with TSC and refractory epilepsy. They are also an effective treatment for reducing the volume of SEGAs in patients with TSC not amenable to surgery with an acceptable side effect profile.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Everolimus solution, 1.0 mg/mL in acetonitrile, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®