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Removal of endocrine disrupting compounds in a lab-scale anaerobic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor unit.

Environmental technology (2014-04-08)
M Muz, S Ak, O T Komesli, C F Gokcay
ABSTRACT

The fate and removal of six selected endocrine disrupting compounds in a lab-scale anaerobic/aerobic (A/O) sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operating at 5 days, solids retention time (SRT) were investigated. A carbamazepine (CBZ), acetaminophen (ATP), diltiazem (DTZ), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), estrone and progesterone mix was spiked as model endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) into domestic wastewater obtained from a nearby sewage treatment plant. The influent, effluent and sludge samples from the SBR unit were analysed by using an LC/MS/MS instrument equipped with electrospray ionization. More than 80% removal was observed for all the EDCs tested. It was found that biodegradation is the most important mechanism for BBP, ATP and progesterone. Biodegradation constants were calculated according to the simplified Monod model for these compounds. The DTZ seemed to have lower rate of biodegradation. The CBZ appeared totally resistant to biodegradation. However, it presented a high rate of sorption onto the sludge and was thereby treated. This contradicts with the literature studies.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Carbamazepine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl butyl phthalate, 98%
Supelco
Benzyl butyl phthalate, analytical standard
Supelco
Progesterone, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Supelco
Estrone, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Carbamazepine, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Progesterone, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Progesterone, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Estrone, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Progesterone, γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Carbamazepine, powder
Supelco
Progesterone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Progesterone, meets USP testing specifications
USP
Carbamazepine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Benzyl butyl phthalate, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Paracetamol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Estrone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Diltiazem hydrochloride solution, 1.0 mg/mL in acetonitrile (as free base), ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
USP
Estrone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Estrone solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
Estrone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Diltiazem hydrochloride, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Carbamazepine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
USP
Progesterone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Carbamazepine, analytical standard
Progesterone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
USP
Diltiazem hydrochloride, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaminophen, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaminophen, meets USP testing specifications, 98.0-102.0%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaminophen, analytical standard