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Oxidation products of biogenic emissions contribute to nucleation of atmospheric particles.

Science (New York, N.Y.) (2014-05-17)
Francesco Riccobono, Siegfried Schobesberger, Catherine E Scott, Josef Dommen, Ismael K Ortega, Linda Rondo, João Almeida, Antonio Amorim, Federico Bianchi, Martin Breitenlechner, André David, Andrew Downard, Eimear M Dunne, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Richard C Flagan, Alessandro Franchin, Armin Hansel, Heikki Junninen, Maija Kajos, Helmi Keskinen, Agnieszka Kupc, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N Kvashin, Ari Laaksonen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Serge Mathot, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Arnaud P Praplan, Filipe D Santos, Simon Schallhart, John H Seinfeld, Mikko Sipilä, Dominick V Spracklen, Yuri Stozhkov, Frank Stratmann, Antonio Tomé, Georgios Tsagkogeorgas, Petri Vaattovaara, Yrjö Viisanen, Aron Vrtala, Paul E Wagner, Ernest Weingartner, Heike Wex, Daniela Wimmer, Kenneth S Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R Worsnop, Urs Baltensperger
ABSTRACT

Atmospheric new-particle formation affects climate and is one of the least understood atmospheric aerosol processes. The complexity and variability of the atmosphere has hindered elucidation of the fundamental mechanism of new-particle formation from gaseous precursors. We show, in experiments performed with the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN, that sulfuric acid and oxidized organic vapors at atmospheric concentrations reproduce particle nucleation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. The experiments reveal a nucleation mechanism involving the formation of clusters containing sulfuric acid and oxidized organic molecules from the very first step. Inclusion of this mechanism in a global aerosol model yields a photochemically and biologically driven seasonal cycle of particle concentrations in the continental boundary layer, in good agreement with observations.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid, ACS reagent, 95.0-98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid, 99.999%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid, puriss. p.a., for determination of Hg, ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., 95.0-97.0%
Supelco
Sulfuric acid, for the determination of nitrogen, ≥97.0%
Supelco
Sulfuric acid concentrate, 0.1 M H2SO4 in water (0.2N), eluent concentrate for IC
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, 95-97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sulfuric acid solution, puriss. p.a., ≥25% (T)

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