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Reduced prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in iron-deficient Rwandan children.

Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH (2014-06-06)
Ina Danquah, Jean-Bosco Gahutu, Ralf Ignatius, Andre Musemakweri, Frank P Mockenhaupt
ABSTRACT

Acute symptomatic infection with Giardia duodenalis impairs iron absorption, but iron deficiency may protect against infections caused by various micro-organisms including parasites. We therefore examined the association of G. duodenalis infection and iron deficiency in 575 Rwandan children under 5 years of age. Giardia duodenalis infection was diagnosed by triplicate microscopy and PCR assays, and iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin concentration <12 ng/ml. Largely asymptomatic G. duodenalis infection was seen in 65.3% of the children and iron deficiency in 17.4%. G. duodenalis infection was less common in iron-deficient children (51%) than in non-deficient children (68%, P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, the odds of G. duodenalis infection were almost halved in iron-deficient children (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.86). In this highly endemic setting, there was no evidence that Giardia infection impairs iron status. Rather, iron deficiency appeared to protect against infection with this parasite.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Ferritin from human liver, Type IV, 10 μg/mL
Sigma-Aldrich
Iron, ≥99%, reduced, powder (fine)
Sigma-Aldrich
Iron, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Iron, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Iron, powder, <10 μm, ≥99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Iron, granular, 10-40 mesh, >99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Iron, wire, diam. 1.0 mm, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Carbonyl iron, ≥97% Fe basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Iron, carbon coated magnetic, nanopowder, 25 nm avg. part. size, 99.5% trace metals basis
Iron, foil, 15mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 15mm disks, thickness 0.005mm, 99.85%
Iron, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.05mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.006mm, 99.85%
Iron, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.038mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 15mm disks, thickness 0.025mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.005mm, 99.85%
Iron, foil, 15mm disks, thickness 0.025mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.01mm, 99.85%
Iron, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.38mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.9mm, as rolled, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 1m coil, thickness 0.038mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.075mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 2m coil, thickness 0.25mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Iron, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.0125mm, 99.85%
Iron, foil, 1m coil, thickness 0.125mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.006mm, 99.85%
Iron, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.5mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.020mm, 99.85%