Several aerobic metabolic pathways for the degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), which are provided by two enzymic systems (dioxygenases and monooxygenases), have been identified. The monooxygenase attacks methyl or ethyl substituents of the aromatic ring, which are subsequently transformed by several oxidations to corresponding substituted pyrocatechols or phenylglyoxal, respectively. Alternatively, one oxygen atom may be first incorporated into aromatic ring while the second atom of the oxygen molecule is used for oxidation of either aromatic ring or a methyl group to corresponding pyrocatechols or protocatechuic acid, respectively. The dioxygenase attacks aromatic ring with the formation of 2-hydroxy-substituted compounds. Intermediates of the "upper" pathway are then mineralized by either ortho- or meta-ring cleavage ("lower" pathway). BTEX are relatively water-soluble and therefore they are often mineralized by indigenous microflora. Therefore, natural attenuation may be considered as a suitable way for the clean-up of BTEX contaminants from gasoline-contaminated soil and groundwater.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.