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Novel clinical in vivo roles for indigo carmine: high-magnification chromoscopic colonoscopy.

Biotechnic & histochemistry : official publication of the Biological Stain Commission (2007-06-20)
D P Hurlstone, R George, S Brown
ABSTRACT

Since the adenoma-carcinoma sequence was first proposed by Morson in the 1970s, it has become widely accepted that detection and subsequent removal of polypoid adenomas from the colon reduces the incidence of colorectal cancer. These adenomas are relatively easy to detect by conventional colonoscopy; however, large population studies have shown that despite resection of polypoid adenomas, interval colorectal cancers still occurred. Recent advances in technology have given today's endoscopists access to high-resolution and high-magnification scopes, which has facilitated detection of flat and depressed colorectal lesions. Current data suggest that such morphologically distinct lesions may account for up to 30% of all colorectal adenomas. Furthermore, flat and depressed lesions of the large bowel may confer greater malignant potential compared to polypoid adenomas. The majority of flat lesions show only subtle changes by conventional colonoscopy, but the use of stains, such as indigocarmine, in addition to magnification colonoscopy can enhance their detection significantly. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for detecting flat colorectal lesions. We explore the use of high-magnification colonoscopy and chromoendoscopy, with particular reference to the application of indigocarmine, in this patient group. We also discuss the novel therapeutic techniques now available for these lesions.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Indigo carmine, certified by the Biological Stain Commission, Dye content 85 %
Sigma-Aldrich
Indigo carmine, for microscopy (Bact., Hist.), indicator (pH 11.5-14.0)
Supelco
Indigo carmine, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Indigo, synthetic, Dye content 95 %