The benefits versus the risks of postnatal administration of steroids in preterm-born infants are still debatable. This review examines the literature on postnatal hydrocortisone treatment for chronic lung disease (CLD) in preterm-born infants with a particular focus on the effects of such treatment on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Quantitative published evidence does not point to a clear advantage of treatment with hydrocortisone over dexamethasone with regard to the impact on long-term neurological outcomes. However, in the absence of a randomised comparison, a consensus may soon have to be reached on the basis of the best available evidence whether hydrocortisone should replace dexamethasone in the treatment of CLD.
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