gamma -aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). During CNS development, the role of GABA is switched from an excitatory transmitter to an inhibitory transmitter, which is caused by an inhibition of calcium influx into postsynaptic neuron derived from release of GABA. The switch is influenced by the neuronal chloride concentration. When the neuronal chloride concentration is at a high level, GABA acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter. When neuronal chloride concentration decreases to some degree, GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The neuronal chloride concentration is increased by Na+-K+-Cl(-)-Cl(-) cotransporters 1 (NKCC1), and decreased by K+-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2).