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  • Bismuth-213 and actinium-225 -- generator performance and evolving therapeutic applications of two generator-derived alpha-emitting radioisotopes.

Bismuth-213 and actinium-225 -- generator performance and evolving therapeutic applications of two generator-derived alpha-emitting radioisotopes.

Current radiopharmaceuticals (2012-05-31)
Alfred Morgenstern, Frank Bruchertseifer, Christos Apostolidis
ABSTRACT

The alpha emitters (225)Ac and (213)Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. Both alpha emitters are available with high specific activity from established radionuclide generators. Their favourable chemical and physical properties have led to the conduction of a large number of preclinical studies and several clinical trials, demonstrating the feasibility, safety and therapeutic efficacy of targeted alpha therapy with (225)Ac and (213)Bi. This review describes methods for the production of (225)Ac and (213)Bi and gives an overview of (225)Ac/(213)Bi radionuclide generator systems. Selected preclinical studies are highlighted and the current clinical experience with (225)Ac and (213)Bi is summarized.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Bismuth, powder, −100 mesh, 99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Bismuth, beads, 1-5 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Bismuth, shot, 4-30 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Bismuth, pieces, 1-12 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Bismuth, granular, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Bismuth, powder, −100 mesh, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 2.0mm, 100%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.02mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.015mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 150x150mm, thickness 0.025mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 2.0mm, 100%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.01mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.001mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.02mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.002mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 0.25mm, 100%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, 100%
Bismuth, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.05mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.0025mm, permanent polyester support, 99.97%
Bismuth, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 1.0mm, 99.97%