Interest in microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) has been increasing exponentially. During the last decade, this bio-based nanomaterial was essentially used in nanocomposites for its reinforcement property. Its nano-scale dimensions and its ability to form a strong entangled nanoporous network, however, have encouraged the emergence of new high-value applications. In previous years, its mode of production has completely changed, as many forms of optimization have been developed. New sources, new mechanical processes, and new pre- and post-treatments are currently under development to reduce the high energy consumption and produce new types of MFC materials on an industrial scale. The nanoscale characterization possibilities of different MFC materials are thus increasing intensively. Therefore, it is critical to review such MFC materials and their properties. Moreover, very recent studies have proved the significant barrier properties of MFC. Hence, it is proposed to focus on the barrier properties of MFC used in films, in nanocomposites, or in paper coating.