Earlier research on rats with normal insulin sensitivity demonstrated that acute exercise increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) concomitant with greater phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (pAS160). Because mechanisms for exercise effects on GU in insulin-resistant muscle are unknown, our primary objective was to assess insulin-stimulated GU, proximal insulin signaling (insulin receptor [IR] tyrosine phosphorylation, IR substrate 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and Akt phosphorylation and activity), and pAS160 in muscles from acutely exercised (one session) and sedentary rats fed either chow (low-fat diet [LFD]; normal insulin sensitivity) or a high-fat diet (HFD; for 2 weeks, insulin-resistant). At 3 h postexercise (3hPEX), isolated epitrochlearis muscles were used for insulin-stimulated GU and insulin signaling measurements. Although exercise did not enhance proximal signaling in either group, insulin-stimulated GU at 3hPEX exceeded respective sedentary control subjects (Sedentary) in both diet groups. Furthermore, insulin-stimulated GU for LFD-3hPEX was greater than HFD-3hPEX values. For HFD-3hPEX muscles, pAS160 exceeded HFD-Sedentary, but in muscle from LFD-3hPEX rats, pAS160 was greater still than HFD-3hPEX values. These results implicated pAS160 as a potential determinant of the exercise-induced elevation in insulin-stimulated GU for each diet group and also revealed pAS160 as a possible mediator of greater postexercise GU of insulin-stimulated muscles from the insulin-sensitive versus insulin-resistant group.