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Membrane-integrated hybrid system for the effective treatment of ammoniacal wastewater of coke-making plant: a volume reduction approach.

Environmental technology (2014-06-25)
Ramesh Kumar, Parimal Pal
ABSTRACT

Nanofiltration (NF) of ammoniacal wastewater containing phenol and cyanide has been investigated for effective separation of these hazardous pollutants and for the subsequent downstream chemical treatment resulting in valuable by-product generation. Four different types of composite polyamide commercial NF membranes (Sepro, USA) were tested under different operating conditions including transmembrane pressure and recovery rate (RR). At a transmembrane pressure of 15 bar, the achieved rejection of cyanide and phenol were 95% and 93%, respectively (concentrated stream) when the permeate contained 85% of ammonium-N. A high flux of 120 L m-2 h-1 was achieved during NF at a concentrated mode, with a volumetric cross-flow rate of 800 L h-1 at a pH of 10.0. The RR was 60% for the NF 1 membrane. Fenton's reagents (7.0 and 3.75 g L-1 H202 and FeSO4 . 7H20, respectively) were used to degrade more than 99% of pollutants present in the concentrated stream. In the permeate side, 97% of NH4+ -N was precipitated out as struvite by using Mg2+ : NH4 : PO+4 in 1:1:1 molar ratio at pH 9.0.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

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Iron, foil, 150x150mm, thickness 0.125mm, hard, 99.5%
Iron, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.009mm, 99.85%
Iron, rod, 200mm, diameter 50mm, as drawn, armcO« soft ingot 99.8%
Iron, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Iron, tube, 200mm, outside diameter 12.0mm, inside diameter 9mm, wall thickness 1.5mm, annealed, 99.5%
Iron, foil, not light tested, 50x50mm, thickness 0.0025mm, 99.85%
Iron, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, armco« soft ingot 99.8%
Iron, tube, 100mm, outside diameter 6.35mm, inside diameter 5.35mm, wall thickness 0.5mm, as drawn, 99.8%
Iron, rod, 50mm, diameter 12.7mm, as drawn, 99.95%
Iron, rod, 100mm, diameter 5.0mm, as drawn, 99.99+%