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DNMT1 modulates gene expression without its catalytic activity partially through its interactions with histone-modifying enzymes.

Nucleic acids research (2012-01-27)
Eriko G Clements, Helai P Mohammad, Benjamin R Leadem, Hariharan Easwaran, Yi Cai, Leander Van Neste, Stephen B Baylin
ABSTRACT

While DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) is classically known for its functions as a maintenance methyltransferase enzyme, additional roles for DNMT1 in gene expression are not as clearly understood. Several groups have shown that deletion of the catalytic domain from DNMT1 does not abolish repressive activity of the protein against a reporter gene. In our studies, we examine the repressor function of catalytically inactive DNMT1 at endogenous genes. First, potential DNMT1 target genes were identified by searching for genes up-regulated in HCT116 colon cancer cells genetically disrupted for DNMT1 (DNMT1(-/-) hypomorph cells). Next, the requirement for DNMT1 activity for repression of these genes was assessed by stably restoring expression of wild-type or catalytically inactive DNMT1. Both wild-type and mutant proteins are able to occupy the promoters and repress the expression of a set of target genes, and induce, at these promoters, both the depletion of active histone marks and the recruitment of a H3K4 demethylase, KDM1A/LSD1. Together, our findings show that there are genes for which DNMT1 acts as a transcriptional repressor independent from its methyltransferase function and that this repressive function may invoke a role for a scaffolding function of the protein at target genes.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-α-Tubulin antibody, Mouse monoclonal, clone B-5-1-2, purified from hybridoma cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-DNMT1 antibody produced in rabbit, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-DNMT1 antibody produced in rabbit, IgG fraction of antiserum, buffered aqueous solution