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Detection of potato brown rot and ring rot by electronic nose: from laboratory to real scale.

Talanta (2014-08-17)
E Biondi, S Blasioli, A Galeone, F Spinelli, A Cellini, C Lucchese, I Braschi
ABSTRACT

A commercial electronic nose (e-nose) equipped with a metal oxide sensor array was trained to recognize volatile compounds emitted by potatoes experimentally infected with Ralstonia solanacearum or Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, which are bacterial agents of potato brown and ring rot, respectively. Two sampling procedures for volatile compounds were tested on pooled tubers sealed in 0.5-1 L jars at room temperature (laboratory conditions): an enrichment unit containing different adsorbent materials (namely, Tenax(®) TA, Carbotrap, Tenax(®) GR, and Carboxen 569) directly coupled with the e-nose (active sampling) and a Radiello(™) cartridge (passive sampling) containing a generic Carbograph fiber. Tenax(®) TA resulted the most suitable adsorbent material for active sampling. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 57.4 and 81.3% total samples as healthy or diseased, when using active and passive sampling, respectively. These results suggested the use of passive sampling to discriminate healthy from diseased tubers under intermediate and real scale conditions. 80 and 90% total samples were correctly classified by LDA under intermediate (100 tubers stored at 4°C in net bag passively sampled) and real scale conditions (tubers stored at 4°C in 1.25 t bags passively sampled). Principal component analysis (PCA) of sensorial analysis data under laboratory conditions highlighted a strict relationship between the disease severity and the responses of the e-nose sensors, whose sensitivity threshold was linked to the presence of at least one tuber per sample showing medium disease symptoms. At intermediate and real scale conditions, data distribution agreed with disease incidence (percentage of diseased tubers), owing to the low storage temperature and volatile compounds unconfinement conditions adopted.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

radiello Barcode Labels, pk of 198
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (CS2 Desorption)
Supelco
radiello BTEX Calibration Kit (Thermal Desorption)
radiello Clips, suspending Radiello triangular support plate, pk of 20
radiello Filtration Kit, pk of 20
radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 10
radiello Replacement Mounting Strips, for use with Radiello Outdoor Shelter, pk of 100
Supelco
radiello VOC Calibration Kit (Workplace Environment)
Supelco
Tenax® TA / Carboxen® 1018, glass TD tube, preconditioned, O.D. × L 1/4  in. × 3 1/2  in., Sealed with (Swagelok® End-Fittings), pkg of 10 ea
Supelco
Carboxen®-1010 PLOT Capillary GC Column, L × I.D. 30 m × 0.53 mm, average thickness 30 μm
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 569, 20-45 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
ORBO 78 HBr on Carboxen® 564 specially cleaned (20/45), 400/200 mg, W,W,W separators, O.D. × L 6 mm × 110 mm, pkg of 25 ea
Supelco
Carboxen®-1006 PLOT Capillary GC Column, L × I.D. 30 m × 0.53 mm, average thickness 30 μm
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 1000, 60-80 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
ORBO 90 Carboxen® 564 (20/45), 160/80 mg, W,F,F separators, O.D. × L 6 mm × 75 mm, pkg of 25 ea, for analyte group MEK (methylethyl ketone)
Supelco
Carboxen®-1010 PLOT Capillary GC Column, L × I.D. 30 m × 0.32 mm, average thickness 15 μm
Supelco
ORBO 101 Carbotrap® B (20/40), 100/50 mg, W,W,W separators, O.D. × L 6 mm × 70 mm, pkg of 25 ea
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 569, 20-45 mesh, bottle of 500 g
Supelco
radiello Methylene Blue Calibration Standard for H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide), pkg of 100 mL
Supelco
Carbotrap® Adsorbent, matrix Carbotrap® B, 20-40 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carboxen®-1006 PLOT Capillary GC Column, L × I.D. 30 m × 0.32 mm, average thickness 15 μm
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 1003, 40-60 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carbotrap® Adsorbent, matrix Carbotrap® C, 20-40 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carboxen® Adsorbent, matrix Carboxen® 1000, 40-60 mesh, bottle of 50 g
Supelco
Carbotrap® Adsorbent, matrix Carbotrap® Y, 20-40 mesh, bottle of 10 g
Supelco
Carbotrap® Adsorbent, matrix Carbotrap® C, 20-40 mesh, bottle of 500 g
Supelco
Carbotrap® 200 Dynatherm 890, 850, for use with Dynatherm ACEM-9300, ACEM-900 850/890 TDU, MTDU and OI Analytical Air Tube Desorber or DMP-16
Supelco
ORBO 100 on Carbotrap® B (20/40), 350/175 mg, W,W,W separators, O.D. × L 7 mm × 110 mm, pkg of 25 ea
Supelco
Carbotrap® 317, glass TD tube (fast-flow), preconditioned, pkg of 1 ea
Supelco
Carbotrap® 100, glass TD tube, preconditioned, pkg of 10 ea