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  • Effects of the human antiepileptic drug carbamazepine on the behavior, biomarkers, and heat shock proteins in the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea.

Effects of the human antiepileptic drug carbamazepine on the behavior, biomarkers, and heat shock proteins in the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea.

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2014-06-22)
Huihui Chen, Jinmiao Zha, Xuefang Liang, Jiasu Li, Zijian Wang
ABSTRACT

Carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing pharmaceutical, is a widespread contaminant in aquatic environments. In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant CBZ concentrations were investigated in freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea. Adult C. fluminea were exposed to 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/L of CBZ for 30 days, after which siphoning behavior (filtration rates), biomarker levels, and heat shock protein expression were measured. The filtration rates were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by 50 μg/L CBZ treatment, indicating a negative impact on C. fluminea health. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were decreased, and catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were increased in the gills and digestive gland, suggesting that CBZ induced an oxidative effect. The levels of Hsp22, Hsp40, and Hsp70 mRNAs were also markedly induced after 5 or 50 μg/L CBZ treatment (p<0.05), whereas Hsp60 and Hsp90 mRNAs in gills and Hsp60 mRNA in digestive gland were significantly repressed (p<0.05). Finally, the expression of Hsp70 protein was significantly increased (p<0.05) by 5 and 50 μg/L exposure. In aggregate, these results confirm that environmentally relevant concentrations of CBZ can exert a negative effect on C. fluminea tissue at the molecular and protein level.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

USP
Carbamazepine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Carbamazepine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Carbamazepine, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Carbamazepine, powder
Supelco
Carbamazepine, analytical standard
Supelco
Glutathione, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Glutathione, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Carbamazepine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutathione reduced, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutathione reduced, suitable for cell culture, BioReagent, ≥98.0%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutathione reduced, BioXtra, ≥98.0%
Supelco
Carbamazepine solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®