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Riverbank filtration potential of pharmaceuticals in a wastewater-impacted stream.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) (2014-07-20)
Paul M Bradley, Larry B Barber, Joseph W Duris, William T Foreman, Edward T Furlong, Laura E Hubbard, Kasey J Hutchinson, Steffanie H Keefe, Dana W Kolpin
ABSTRACT

Pharmaceutical contamination of shallow groundwater is a substantial concern in effluent-dominated streams, due to high aqueous mobility, designed bioactivity, and effluent-driven hydraulic gradients. In October and December 2012, effluent contributed approximately 99% and 71%, respectively, to downstream flow in Fourmile Creek, Iowa, USA. Strong hydrologic connectivity was observed between surface-water and shallow-groundwater. Carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, and immunologically-related compounds were detected in groundwater at greater than 0.02 μg L(-1) at distances up to 6 m from the stream bank. Direct aqueous-injection HPLC-MS/MS revealed 43% and 55% of 110 total pharmaceutical analytes in surface-water samples in October and December, respectively, with 16% and 6%, respectively, detected in groundwater approximately 20 m from the stream bank. The results demonstrate the importance of effluent discharge as a driver of local hydrologic conditions in an effluent-impacted stream and thus as a fundamental control on surface-water to groundwater transport of effluent-derived pharmaceutical contaminants.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Sulfamethoxazole, analytical standard
Supelco
Sulfamethoxazole, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Supelco
Sulfamethoxazole, VETRANAL®, analytical standard
Sulfamethoxazole, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Sulfamethoxazole, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Carbamazepine solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
USP
Sulfamethoxazole, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
USP
Carbamazepine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Carbamazepine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Carbamazepine, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Carbamazepine, powder
Supelco
Carbamazepine, analytical standard
Carbamazepine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard