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The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) as an environmental bioindicator species of heavy metal contamination.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology (2014-08-26)
Mauro Giammarino, Piero Quatto, Stefania Squadrone, Maria Cesarina Abete
ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine the possible presence of lead and cadmium in the liver and kidneys of hooded crows (Corvus cornix). Liver and kidneys of hooded crow carcasses were collected in Province of Cuneo (Piedmont, Italy) in order to detect lead and cadmium content. Significant differences were found in lead and cadmium levels between areas of intensive cultivation versus areas where meadows are prevalent. Moreover, age greatly influenced the burden of heavy metals, while sex did not seem to affect the level of contamination. The source of contamination may be phosphate fertilizers used for intensive cultivation in the study area.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, powder, −100 mesh, 99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, shot, <2 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Lead, shot, 1-3 mm, 99.995% trace metals basis
Lead, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 1.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, light tested, 100x100mm, thickness 0.025mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 3.0mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 1m coil, thickness 0.016mm, as rolled, 96% (sn 1.5%, sb 2.5%)
Lead, foil, 15mm disks, thickness 0.009mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 0.5m coil, thickness 0.016mm, as rolled, 96% (sn 1.5%, sb 2.5%)
Lead, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 10m coil, thickness 0.12mm, coil width 25.4mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 15mm disks, thickness 0.0125mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 1m coil, thickness 0.15mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 10mm disks, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.05mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.01mm, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 50mm disks, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 300x300mm, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 5m coil, thickness 0.15mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 6mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.95%
Lead, foil, 25x25mm, thickness 0.55mm, as rolled, 99.999%
Lead, foil, 100x100mm, thickness 6.0mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 50x50mm, thickness 1.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Lead, foil, 5m coil, thickness 0.05mm, as rolled, 97% (sn 1.5%, sb 1.5%)