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  • Local and systemic response to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge during long-term manipulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in dairy cows.

Local and systemic response to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge during long-term manipulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in dairy cows.

Journal of dairy science (2012-05-01)
M C M B Vernay, O Wellnitz, L Kreipe, H A van Dorland, R M Bruckmaier
ABSTRACT

The metabolic load during periods of high milk production in dairy cows causes a variety of changes of metabolite blood concentrations including dramatically decreased glucose levels. These changes supposedly impair the immune system. The goal of this study was, therefore, to evaluate adaptations of the cow's immune system in response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation during a 3-d modification of plasma glucose and insulin induced by different clamp infusions. Seventeen midlactating dairy cows received a hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin infusion (HypoG; n=5), a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n=6), or infusion of saline solution (NaCl; n=6) for 56 h. At 48 h of infusion, 2 udder quarters were challenged with 200 μg of Escherichia coli LPS. At 48 h of infusion (immediately before LPS challenge), tumor necrosis factor α, lactoferrin, and serum amyloid A (SAA) mRNA abundance was increased in HypoG and Il-1β mRNA abundance was decreased in EuG. After LPS challenge, plasma glucose concentration did not decrease, although plasma insulin increased simultaneously in all groups either due to enhanced endogenous release (NaCl) or due to increased insulin infusion rate (HypoG; EuG). Plasma cortisol, rectal temperatures, and milk somatic cell count of challenged quarters increased, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were similarly decreased across treatments. In mammary biopsies, increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10, and SAA were observed in LPS-treated quarters of all groups, with a more pronounced increase in IL-1β, IL-10, and SAA expression in EuG. Nuclear factor-κB mRNA expression was upregulated in NaCl and EuG but not in HypoG in response to LPS. Lactoferrin, toll-like receptor 4, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was increased in LPS-treated quarters of EuG only, and 5-lipoxygenase mRNA expression was decreased in LPS-treated quarters only in treatments HypoG and NaCl. In conclusion, intramammary LPS induces local and systemic inflammatory responses, as well as systemic insulin resistance. The observed treatment differences of the mammary mRNA expression of several immune parameters both before and after LPS challenge indicate a direct influence of changed glucose and insulin concentrations during the course of lactation on the immune defense against mastitis pathogens.

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Insulin from bovine pancreas, Hybri-Max, powder, suitable for hybridoma