The 26S proteasome is a eukaryotic ATP-dependent protease functioning as a protein death machine. It is a large multisubunit complex, consisting of a catalytic 20S proteasome and two regulatory modules, named PA700. The PA700 complex is composed of multiple subunits of 25-110 kDa, which are classified into two subgroups, a subgroup of at least 6 ATPases that consitute a unique multi-gene family encoding homologous polypeptides conserved during evolution and a subgroup of approximately 15 non-ATPase subunits, most of which are structurally unrelated to each other. In the present study, we report the chromosomal localization and immunological properties of six members of the human 26S proteasomal ATPase family. By use of the fluorescence in situ hybridization method, the S4 (PSMC1), MSS1 (PSMC2), TBP1 (PSMC3), TBP7 (PSMC4), p45 (PSMC5), and p42 (PSMC6) genes were mapped to human chromosomes 19p13.3, 7q22.1-q22.3, 11p11.2, 19q13.11-q13.13, 17q23.1-q23.3, and 12q15, respectively, indicating that the genes for multiple ATPases of the 26S proteasome are located on different chromosomes. Immunoblot analysis revealed that all these ATPases were associated with the purified 26S proteasome and that some of them showed striking heterogeneity in their electrical charges.