Prurigo nodularis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by neurohyperplasia. Neurotrophins and their receptors play a critical role in nerve growth, differentiation, maturation and maintenance, including cutaneous nerve fiber growth and innervation. They may also be responsible for events related to the growth and differentiation control of keratinocytes. To explore the exact distribution of the p75 low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75 NGFr) in the cutaneous nerve components, p75 NGFr immunofluorescence as well as ultrastructural immunohistochemical studies were performed on prurigo nodularis lesional skin and normal human skin samples. The immunofluorescence results revealed that nerve fibers and bundles were increased in number and size in lesional upper dermis with stronger p75 NGFr immunoreactivity than in the corresponding normal tissue. At the ultrastructural level, a lot of nerve fibers clustered together in the prurigo nodularis dermal tissue. The axons were enlarged and branched, but the axons themselves seldom showed any NGFr immunoreactivity. The Schwann cell bodies were extended and irregularly shaped, and tended to separate into many branches enveloping the axons. The Schwann cell membrane showed strong p75 NGFr immunoreactivity. The perineurium cells also revealed strong p75 NGFr immunoreactivity. The Schwann cells inside the perineurium were less p75 NGFr-immunoreactive than those outside the perineurium. The membrane of certain basal keratinocytes showed NGFr immunoreactivity as well. The present results indicate that overexpression of p75 NGFr in Schwann cells and perineurium cells could contribute to the neurohyperplasia in prurigo nodularis.