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Acrylonitrile exposure in the general population following a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study.

Toxicology letters (2014-09-17)
T De Smedt, K De Cremer, C Vleminckx, S Fierens, B Mertens, I Van Overmeire, M Bader, P De Paepe, T Göen, B Nemery, T Schettgen, C Stove, H Van Oyen, J Van Loco, A Van Nieuwenhuyse
ABSTRACT

On Saturday May 4, 2013, a train transporting chemicals derailed in the village of Wetteren (Belgium) and caused a leak of acrylonitrile (ACN). To assess the human exposure to acrylonitrile in the local population with the highest suspected exposure. Between May 18-25, 242 residents participated in the study. N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV), a biomarker that is highly specific for ACN exposure, was measured in the blood. To account for potential influence by smoking, cotinine was determined in the urine. Participants also filled in a short questionnaire. In the evacuated zone, 37.3% of the non-smokers and 40.0% of the smokers had CEV concentrations above the reference values of 10 and 200 pmol/g globin, respectively, at the time of the train accident. Spatial mapping of the CEV concentrations depending on the residential address showed a distribution pattern following the sewage system. The train derailment resulted in a highly atypical sequence-of-events. In addition to exposure in the direct vicinity of the site of the train derailment, exposure also occurred via the sewage system, into which acrylonitrile had entered shortly after the accident.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, pH 8.0, ~0.5 M in H2O
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ACS reagent, 99.4-100.6%, powder
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, BioUltra, anhydrous, ≥99% (titration)
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, anhydrous, crystalline, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
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Acrylonitrile, ≥99%, contains 35-45 ppm monomethyl ether hydroquinone as inhibitor
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L-Valine, reagent grade, ≥98% (HPLC)
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution, 0.02% in DPBS (0.5 mM), sterile-filtered, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, purified grade, ≥98.5%, powder
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 99.995% trace metals basis
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L-Valine, from non-animal source, meets EP, JP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 98.5-101.0%
Supelco
Acrylonitrile, analytical standard
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L-Valine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ≥98.0% (KT)
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Acrylonitrile, ≥99%, contains 35-45 ppm monomethyl ether hydroquinone as inhibitor
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L-Valine, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (NT)
SAFC
L-Valine
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, BioUltra, ≥99.0% (KT)
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Acrylonitrile solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol
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L-Valine, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Valine, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard