• Home
  • Search Results
  • Fetal human keratinocytes produce large amounts of antimicrobial peptides: involvement of histone-methylation processes.

Fetal human keratinocytes produce large amounts of antimicrobial peptides: involvement of histone-methylation processes.

The Journal of investigative dermatology (2014-04-04)
Maria Gschwandtner, Shaomin Zhong, Antonia Tschachler, Veronika Mlitz, Susanne Karner, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger, Michael Mildner
ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), an important part of the innate immune system, are crucial for defense against invading microorganisms. Whereas AMPs have been extensively studied in adult skin, little is known about the impact of AMPs in the developing human skin. We therefore compared the expression and regulation of AMPs in fetal, neonatal, and adult keratinocytes (KCs) in vitro. The constitutive expression of human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2), HBD-3, S100 protein family members, and cathelicidin was significantly higher in KCs from fetal skin than in KCs from postnatal skin. The capacity to further increase AMP production was comparable between prenatal and postnatal KCs. Analysis of skin equivalents (SEs) revealed a strong constitutive expression of S100 proteins in fetal but not in neonatal and adult SEs. The elevated AMP levels correlated with reduced H3K27me3 (tri-methyl-lysine 27 on histone H3) levels and increased expression of the histone demethylase JMJD3. Knockdown of JMJD3 in fetal KCs elevated H3K27me3 levels and significantly downregulated the expression of HBD-3, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, and cathelicidin. Our data indicate a crucial contribution of histone modifications in the regulation of AMP expression in the skin during ontogeny. The elevated AMP expression in prenatal skin might represent an essential defense strategy of the unborn.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Dithiothreitol, ≥98% (HPLC), ≥99.0% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Dithiothreitol, for molecular biology, ≥98% (HPLC), ≥99% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, powder, suitable for cell culture, γ-irradiated
Supelco
Ascorbic Acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, BioXtra, ≥99.0%, crystalline
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, suitable for cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, ACS reagent, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Dithiothreitol, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (RT)
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Dithiothreitol, ≥99.0% (RT)
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Dithiothreitol, BioXtra, ≥99.0% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, reagent grade, crystalline
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Dithiothreitol, suitable for electrophoresis, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, Ph. Eur., 99.7-100.5% (oxidimetric)
Supelco
L-Ascorbic acid, analytical standard
USP
Ascorbic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, reagent grade
Ascorbic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, meets USP testing specifications
Supelco
L-Ascorbic acid, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
IL-1 beta human, Animal-component free, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥98% (SDS-PAGE), ≥98% (HPLC), suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, puriss. p.a., ≥99.0% (RT)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (RT)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
β-D-Allose, rare aldohexose sugar
Sigma-Aldrich
IL-1β mouse, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, untagged, >95% (SDS-PAGE)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Ascorbic acid, suitable for plant cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
IL-1β human, recombinant, expressed in HEK 293 cells, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE)