Galla chinensis (GAC) is a natural traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used in folk medicine. Although GAC compounds (mainly gallic acid and methyl gallate) possess strong antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, and antioxidant activities, there is no report regarding topical or oral administration of GAC compounds on UVB irradiation-induced photoaging in hairless mice (SKH: HR-1). In the present study, we examined cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes induced by UVB in vitro. We also studied skin damage by measuring skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkling and levels of protein MMP-1, elastin, procollagen type I, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in hairless mouse skin chronically irradiated by UVB in vivo. GAC treatment significantly prevented skin photoaging by reducing the levels of ROS, MMP-1, and IL-6 and promoting production of elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-β1. According to the results of H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining, GAC reduced skin thickness and wrinkle formation while it increased skin elasticity. The effects of GAC on UVB-induced skin photoaging may be due to suppressed MMP-1 expression. These findings could be referenced for the development of new agents that target UVB-induced photoaging.