Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) emerge as a promising tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicines due to their extensive self-renewal ability and the capacity to give rise to cells from all three-germ layers. ESCs also secrete a large amount of endogenous extracellular matrices (ECMs), which play an important role in regulating ESC self-renewal, lineage commitment, and tissue morphogenesis. ECMs derived from ESCs have a broader signaling capacity compared to somatic ECMs and are predicted to have a lower risk of tumor formation associated with ESCs. In this study, ECMs from undifferentiated ESC monolayers, undifferentiated aggregates, or differentiated embryoid bodies at different developmental stages and lineage specifications were decellularized and their capacities to direct ESC proliferation and differentiation were characterized. The results demonstrate that the ESC-derived ECMs were able to influence ESC proliferation and differentiation by direct interactions with the cells and by influencing the signaling functions of the regulatory macromolecules such as retinoic acid. Such matrices have the potential to present regulatory signals to direct lineage- and development-specific cellular responses for in vitro applications or cell delivery.