Oxybaphus nyctagineus (Michx.) Sweet has traditionally been used by several Native American tribes predominantly as a topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. To evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Oxybaphus nyctagineus and to characterize the major chemical constituents of the bioactive extracts. Crude polar and apolar extracts (PCE and ACE) of the herb of Oxybaphus nyctagineus were prepared and tested in the models of the CFA-induced hyperalgesia in rat knee and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat. To identify the active compounds, subfractions were prepared by column chromatography and subjected in vitro assays, such as antioxidant assays (DPPH, peroxynitrite (ONOO-) scavenging), and the LPS-induced IL-1β release test in human monocytes. Preparative HPLC was employed for the isolation of active substances, while phytochemical analysis was performed by mean of LC-MS/MS and NMR. The topically administered PCE and ACE of Oxybaphus nyctagineus demonstrated a significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in the inflammation animal models. The subfraction A4 of ACE and the subfraction P5 of PCE considerably inhibited the LPS-induced IL-1β release in human monocytes, while the strongest activity was localized in the subfraction P5 in the antioxidant assays. The HPLC-MS/MS and NMR analysis revealed that 6-methoxyflavonol diglycosides, namely patuletin-3-O-robinobioside (1), 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-robinobioside (2), spinacetin-3-O-robinobioside (3), and hydroxy-polyenoic fatty acids, namely corchorifatty acid B (4), 9-hydroxy-10E,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid (9-HOT acid) (5), and 9-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9-HOD acid) (6) were present in PCE, and in ACE as major compounds. The results of this study established a pharmacological evidence for the traditional use of Oxybaphus nyctagineus as an anti-inflammatory agent used topically, and provided data on its phytochemical composition for the first time.