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Preformulation studies of EFdA, a novel nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for HIV prevention.

Drug development and industrial pharmacy (2013-07-12)
Wei Zhang, Michael A Parniak, Hiroaki Mitsuya, Stefan G Sarafianos, Phillip W Graebing, Lisa C Rohan
ABSTRACT

4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a novel nucleoside analog of great interest because of its superior activity against wild-type and multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains, and favorable safety profiles in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this work was to provide preformulation information of EFdA important for delivery system development. A simple, accurate and specific reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection was developed for quantification of EFdA. In addition, physicochemical characterizations including pH solubility profile, octanol/water partition coefficient (Log Po/w), DSC analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and stability studies under various conditions were conducted. EFdA existed in planar or flake shape, with a melting point of ∼130 °C, and had a pH dependent solubility. The log Po/w value of EFdA was -1.19. The compound was stable upon exposure to pH levels from 3 to 9 and showed good stability at elevated temperature (65 °C). In vitro cytotoxicity assessments were performed in two different epithelial cell lines. In cell-based studies, the EFdA selectivity index (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] values/50% effective concentration [EC50]) was found to be greater than 1 × 10(3). Permeability studies using cell- and tissue-based models showed that EFdA had an apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) <1 × 10(-6)cm/s and that the paracelluar pathway was the dominant transport route for EFdA. Overall, EFdA possesses favorable characteristics for further formulation development.

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