• Home
  • Search Results
  • Native oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France: their soil-porewater partitioning behavior, bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus, and bioavailability.

Native oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France: their soil-porewater partitioning behavior, bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus, and bioavailability.

Environmental science & technology (2014-09-13)
Hans Peter H Arp, Staffan Lundstedt, Sarah Josefsson, Gerard Cornelissen, Anja Enell, Ann-Sofie Allard, Dan Berggren Kleja
ABSTRACT

Soil quality standards are based on partitioning and toxicity data for laboratory-spiked reference soils, instead of real world, historically contaminated soils, which would be more representative. Here 21 diverse historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France were obtained, and the soil-porewater partitioning along with the bioaccumulation in exposed worms (Enchytraeus crypticus) of native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were quantified. The native PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, for the first time to be included in such a study, oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs (N-PACs). The passive sampler polyoxymethylene (POM) was used to measure the equilibrium freely dissolved porewater concentration, Cpw, of all PACs. The obtained organic carbon normalized partitioning coefficients, KTOC, show that sorption of these native PACs is much stronger than observed in laboratory-spiked soils (typically by factors 10 to 100), which has been reported previously for PAHs but here for the first time for oxy-PAHs and N-PACs. A recently developed KTOC model for historically contaminated sediments predicted the 597 unique, native KTOC values in this study within a factor 30 for 100% of the data and a factor 3 for 58% of the data, without calibration. This model assumes that TOC in pyrogenic-impacted areas sorbs similarly to coal tar, rather than octanol as typically assumed. Black carbon (BC) inclusive partitioning models exhibited substantially poorer performance. Regarding bioaccumulation, Cpw combined with liposome-water partition coefficients corresponded better with measured worm lipid concentrations, Clipid (within a factor 10 for 85% of all PACs and soils), than Cpw combined with octanol-water partition coefficients (within a factor 10 for 76% of all PACs and soils). E. crypticus mortality and reproducibility were also quantified. No enhanced mortality was observed in the 21 historically contaminated soils despite expectations from PAH spiked reference soils. Worm reproducibility weakly correlated to Clipid of PACs, though the contributing influence of metal concentrations and soil texture could not be taken into account. The good agreement of POM-derived Cpw with independent soil and lipid partitioning models further supports that soil risk assessments would improve by accounting for bioavailability. Strategies for including bioavailability in soil risk assessment are presented.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, HPLC Plus, for HPLC, GC, and residue analysis, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, suitable for HPLC, ≥97.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, anhydrous, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Pentane, anhydrous, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, suitable for HPLC, ≥95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, HPLC Plus, for HPLC, GC, and residue analysis, ≥95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexane, Laboratory Reagent, ≥95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, Laboratory Reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Pentane, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Acetone, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Pentane, reagent grade, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, NF, ≥99% (GC)
Supelco
Acetone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Hexane, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, histological grade, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Pentane, ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, natural, ≥97%
Supelco
Acetone solution, certified reference material, 2000 μg/mL in methanol: water (9:1)
USP
Acetone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Pentane, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetone, ≥99%, meets FCC analytical specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Pentane, puriss. p.a., ≥99.0% (GC)