Proteinase 3 (Pr3), and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) are two major neutrophilic serine proteases (NsPs) expressed in neutrophil azurophil granules. Emerging data suggest that excessive release of proteases mediates tissue damage, and therefore prolonged neutrophil accumulation has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Thus, HNE and Pr3 inhibitors may prove to be targets for the generation of agents in the treatment of neutrophilic inflammatory disease. Sivelestat is the only commercially available selective HNE inhibitor. Therefore, sivelestat was chosen as the model structure in an attempt to obtain more potent anti-NsPs agents. In the present study, a series 2-aminobenzaldehyde oxime and 2-aminobenzoate analogs were synthesized and their inhibitory effects on NsPs (CatG, Pr3, and HNE) were determined, respectively. The results of structure-activity relationships studies concluded that a hydroxyl oxime moiety plays an important role in ligand-enzyme affinity through hydrogen bonding. As compound 6 had more potency and showed dual inhibitory effects on NE and Pr3, both in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to evaluate its selectivity, effects in cell-based assays, and efficacy in models of inflammation and damage. Compound 6 had the potential to reduce paw edema induced by LPS and HNE, as well as acute lung injury, and may be approved as a candidate for the development of new agents in the treatment of neutrophilic inflammatory diseases.