The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on periodontitis development in rats. Periodontal disease was experimentally induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2 mg/ml) injections into the gingival tissue around first upper and lower molar's neck, and into the interdental space between first and second molars. This protocol was repeated for 6 weeks on days 1, 3, and 5 of each week. Chronic alcohol consumption was induced by 20% ethanol (EtOH) as the only liquid source during 4 months. Chronic alcohol consumption by itself increased alveolar bone loss and biological mediators of periodontal disease such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) content on gingival tissue, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity plus PGE2 content in submandibular gland. Unexpectedly, alcohol consumption did not increase the damage evoked by the proved model of LPS injections for periodontitis induction. Results suggest 20% alcohol consumption during 4 months generates differential effects on oral health of rats, depending on its pathophysiological state: It would exacerbate the inflammatory condition when periodontal damage is absent, but it would not when damage is installed.