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Species differences in the metabolism of ritobegron in vitro and assessment of potential interactions with transporters and cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Die Pharmazie (2015-05-16)
Y Abe, E Ota, H Harada, H Kanbe, Y Kojima, T Kanazawa, T Endo, M Murakami, M Kobayashi
ABSTRACT

Ritobegron, a selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist, is the prodrug of the active compound, KUC-7322. We investigated species differences in its metabolism in vitro and the potential for drug-drug interactions with ritobegron. In rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes, ritobegron was not metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). KUC-7322 was the only metabolite observed. Hydrolysis of ritobegron to KUC-7322 was likely catalyzed by carboxylesterases in human liver microsomes. The maximum velocity of the reaction (V(max))/Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) for hydrolysis of ritobegron to KUC-7322 was much higher in rat serum than those in other species. There were also species differences in the conjugation of KUC-7322. Sulfate conjugates of ritobegron were detected in all species, whereas glucuronide and glutathione conjugates of KUC-7322 were only observed in rat liver subcellular fractions. Ritobegron and KUC-7322 did not affect the CYP-mediated metabolism of probe substrates in human liver microsomes and organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1)-, OAT2-, OAT3-, organic cation transporter 2 (OCT-2)-, OCT3-, or organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1)-mediated uptake of probe substrates in S2 cells. Ritobegron, but not KUC-7322, inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated digoxin transport in Caco-2 cells. Significant uptake of KUC-7322 was observed in OAT3-expressing S2 cells. Therefore, CYP-mediated drug-drug interactions are not likely when ritobegron is administered with CYP substrates or inhibitors. Ritobegron may increase the plasma concentrations of P-glycoprotein substrates, such as digoxin, and the plasma concentration of KUC-7322 may increase when it is administered in combination with OAT inhibitors such as probenecid.

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