The roots of Angelica decursiva Fr. Et Sav (Umbelliferae) have been frequently used in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antitussive, analgesic agents and expectorant, especially for treating cough, asthma, bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections. To establish the scientific rationale for the clinical use of Angelica decursiva and to identify new agents for treating inflammatory lung disorders, pharmacological evaluation of the roots of Angelica decursiva and the isolated constituents was performed. In vitro study was carried out using two lung cells, lung epithelial cells (A549) and alveolar macrophages (MH-S). The inflammatory markers such as IL-6 and nitric oxide (NO) for each cell line were examined. For in vivo study, a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury was used and the effects on lung inflammation were established by measuring the cell numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and by histological observation. Water and 70% ethanol extracts of the roots of Angelica decursiva showed considerable inhibitory activity against LPS-induced lung inflammation in mice following oral administration at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Five coumarin derivatives including columbianadin, umbelliferone, umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, nodakenin and nodakenetin were isolated. Among the isolated compounds, columbianadin was found to possess strong inhibitory activity against the inflammatory response of IL-1β-treated A549 cells and LPS-treated MH-S cells. Columbianadin was found to inhibit NO production by down-regulation of inducible NO synthase. Moreover, columbianadin was also proved to possess significant inhibitory activity against LPS-induced lung inflammation following oral administration at a dose of 20-60 mg/kg. The roots of Angelica decursiva were proved to be effective in the treatment of lung inflammation. Columbianadin can be a potential new agent for treating inflammatory lung disorders.