Angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT-1) is a secreted glycoprotein that was first characterized as a ligand of the Tie2 receptor. In a previous study using microarray analysis, we found that the expression of ANGPT-1 was upregulated in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines compared with that in uninfected Burkitt and other leukemia cell lines. Other authors have also reported focal expression of ANGPT-1 mRNA in biopsy specimens of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tissue from patients with AIDS. Here, to confirm these findings, we examined the expression and secretion levels of ANGPT-1 in KSHV-infected PEL cell lines and address the mechanisms of ANGPT-1 transcriptional regulation. We also showed that ANGPT-1 was expressed and localized in the cytoplasm and secreted into the supernatant of KSHV-infected PEL cells. Deletion studies of the regulatory region revealed that the region encompassing nucleotides -143 to -125 of the ANGPT-1-regulating sequence was responsible for this upregulation. Moreover, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by quantitative PCR, suggested that some KSHV-infected PEL cell line-specific DNA-binding factors, such as OCT-1, should be involved in the upregulation of ANGPT-1 in a sequence-dependent manner. We confirmed that ANGPT-1 was expressed in and secreted from KSHV-infected PEL cells and that the transcriptional activity of ANGPT-1 was upregulated. A 19-bp fragment was identified as the region responsible for ANGPT-1 upregulation through binding with OCT-1 as a core factor in PEL cells. This study suggests that ANGPT-1 is overproduced in KSHV-infected PEL cells, which could affect the pathophysiology of AIDS patients with PEL.