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Immunomodulatory Function of Interleukin 28B during primary infection with cytomegalovirus.

The Journal of infectious diseases (2014-03-13)
Adrian Egli, Aviad Levin, Deanna M Santer, Michael Joyce, Daire O'Shea, Brad S Thomas, Luiz F Lisboa, Khaled Barakat, Rakesh Bhat, Karl P Fischer, Michael Houghton, D Lorne Tyrrell, Deepali Kumar, Atul Humar

Feedback mechanisms between interferons α and λ (IFNs) may be affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in interleukin 28B (IL-28B; IFN-λ3) promoter region and may influence cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication. We associated IL-28B SNPs with the risk of CMV replication after transplantation. Next, we examined the effect of IL-28B genotypes on IL-28B, and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, and CMV replication in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Transplant recipients with an IL-28B SNP (rs8099917) had significantly less CMV replication (P = .036). Both HFF-cells and PBMCs with a SNP showed lower IL-28B expression during infection with CMV, but higher "antiviral" ISG expression (eg, OAS1). Fibroblasts with a SNP had a 3-log reduction of CMV replication at day 4 (P = .004). IL-28B pretreatment induced ISG expression in noninfected fibroblasts, but a relative decrease of ISG expression could be observed in CMV-infected fibroblasts. The inhibitory effects of IL-28B could be abolished by siRNA or antagonistic peptides against the IL-28 receptor. In fibroblasts, inhibition of IL-28 signaling resulted in an increase of ISG expression and 3-log reduction of CMV-replication (P = .01). We postulate that IL-28B may act as a key regulator of ISG expression during primary CMV infection. IL-28B SNPs may be associated with higher antiviral ISG expression, which results in better replication control.

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Diethyl azodicarboxylate solution, 40 wt. % in toluene