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  • Embryonic exposure to sodium arsenite perturbs vascular development in zebrafish.

Embryonic exposure to sodium arsenite perturbs vascular development in zebrafish.

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2014-04-29)
Catherine W McCollum, Charu Hans, Shishir Shah, Fatima A Merchant, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Maria Bondesson
ABSTRACT

Exposure to arsenic in its inorganic form, arsenite, causes adverse effects to many different organs and tissues. Here, we have investigated arsenite-induced adverse effects on vascular tissues in the model organism zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to arsenite at different exposure windows and the susceptibility to vascular tissue damage was recorded at 72hours post fertilization (hpf). Intersegmental vessel sprouting and growth was most perturbed by exposure to arsenite during the 24-48hpf window, while disruption in the condensation of the caudal vein plexus was more often observed at the 48-72hpf exposure window, reflecting when these structures develop during normal embryogenesis. The vascular growth rate was decreased by arsenite exposure, and deviated from that of control embryos at around 24-26.5hpf. We further mapped changes in expression of key regulators of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1/fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (vegfr1/flt1) expression was evident already at 24hpf, coinciding with the decreased vascular growth rate. At later time points, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mmp9) expression was upregulated, suggesting that arsenite affects the composition of the extracellular matrix. In total, the expression of eight key factors involved in different aspects of vascularization was significantly altered by arsenic exposure. In conclusion, our results show that arsenite is a potent vascular disruptor in the developing zebrafish embryo, a finding that calls for an evaluation of arsenite as a developmental vascular toxicant in mammalian model systems.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium (meta)arsenite, ≥90%
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, natural, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Benzyl benzoate, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Benzyl benzoate, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl benzoate, tested according to Ph. Eur.
USP
Benzyl benzoate, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard