Because vaccination is an effective means to protect humans from influenza viruses, extensive efforts have been made to develop not only new vaccines, but also for new adjuvants to enhance the efficacy of existing inactivated vaccines. Here, we examined the adjuvanticity of synthetic hemozoin, a synthetic version of the malarial by-product hemozoin, on the vaccine efficacy of inactivated whole influenza viruses in a mouse model. We found that mice immunized twice with hemozoin-adjuvanted inactivated A/California/04/2009 (H1N1pdm09) or A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus elicited higher virus-specific antibody responses than did mice immunized with non-adjuvanted counterparts. Furthermore, mice immunized with hemozoin-adjuvanted inactivated viruses were better protected from lethal challenge with influenza viruses than were mice immunized with non-adjuvanted inactivated vaccines. Our results show that hemozoin improves the immunogenicity of inactivated influenza viruses, and is thus a promising adjuvant for inactivated whole virion influenza vaccines.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.