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Randomised trial of no hydration vs. sodium bicarbonate hydration in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing acute computed tomography-pulmonary angiography.

Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH (2014-08-22)
J Kooiman, Y W J Sijpkens, M van Buren, J H M Groeneveld, S R S Ramai, A J van der Molen, N J M Aarts, C J van Rooden, S C Cannegieter, H Putter, T J Rabelink, M V Huisman
ABSTRACT

Hydration to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) induces a diagnostic delay when performing computed tomography-pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in patients suspected of having acute pulmonary embolism. To analyze whether withholding hydration is non-inferior to sodium bicarbonate hydration before CTPA in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed an open-label multicenter randomized trial between 2009 and 2013. One hundred thirty-nine CKD patients were randomized, of whom 138 were included in the intention-to-treat population: 67 were randomized to withholding hydration and 71 were randomized to 1-h 250 mL 1.4% sodium bicarbonate hydration before CTPA. Primary outcome was the increase in serum creatinine 48-96 h after CTPA. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of CI-AKI (creatinine increase > 25%/> 0.5 mg dL(-1) ), recovery of renal function, and the need for dialysis within 2 months after CTPA. Withholding hydration was considered non-inferior if the mean relative creatinine increase was ≤ 15% compared with sodium bicarbonate. Mean relative creatinine increase was -0.14% (interquartile range -15.1% to 12.0%) for withholding hydration and -0.32% (interquartile range -9.7% to 10.1%) for sodium bicarbonate (mean difference 0.19%, 95% confidence interval -5.88% to 6.25%, P-value non-inferiority < 0.001). CI-AKI occurred in 11 patients (8.1%): 6 (9.2%) were randomized to withholding hydration and 5 (7.1%) to sodium bicarbonate (relative risk 1.29, 95% confidence interval 0.41-4.03). Renal function recovered in 80.0% of CI-AKI patients within each group (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.54-1.86). None of the CI-AKI patients developed a need for dialysis. Our results suggest that preventive hydration could be safely withheld in CKD patients undergoing CTPA for suspected acute pulmonary embolism. This will facilitate management of these patients and prevents delay in diagnosis as well as unnecessary start of anticoagulant treatment while receiving volume expansion.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Iopromide for system suitability 1, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Iopromide, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Iopromide for system suitability 2, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard