A novel wound-dressing biodevice, sensitive to lysozyme, an enzyme commonly found at infected skin wounds, was assembled by the layer-by-layer deposition of nanopolymeric chitosan and alginate films onto oxidized bacterial cellulose membranes incorporated with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Distinct EGF release profiles were obtained according to specific stimuli caused by infection. In in vitro conditions simulating noninfected wounds, the EGF rate and burst release effect were reduced by three deposited layers (Mt /M∞ of 0.25 at 3 h) in a process dependent on the porosity of the compact chitosan-alginate complex. The importance of the organized structure was revealed when an infected wound was simulated by adding lysozyme to the release medium, thus inducing the formation of a loosely polyelectrolyte architecture that caused rapid EGF diffusion (Mt /M∞ of 0.75 at 30 min). The results indicate that the nanopolymeric layers were capable of slowly releasing EGF as required for normal wound repair and rapidly undergoing architectural transitions that allow the diffusion of massive amounts of drug to enhance the process of re-epithelialization. In summary, the proposed system comprises the roles of both wound dressing and local delivery mechanism to recognize infections and respond with a burst of EGF release.