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Cooperativity of E-cadherin and Smad4 loss to promote diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma and metastasis.

Molecular cancer research : MCR (2014-05-03)
Jun Won Park, Seok Hoon Jang, Dong Min Park, Na Jung Lim, Chuxia Deng, Dae Yong Kim, Jeffrey E Green, Hark Kyun Kim
ABSTRACT

Loss of E-cadherin (CDH1), Smad4, and p53 has been shown to play an integral role in gastric, intestinal, and breast cancer formation. Compound conditional knockout mice for Smad4, p53, and E-cadherin were generated to define and compare the roles of these genes in gastric, intestinal, and breast cancer development by crossing with Pdx-1-Cre, Villin-Cre, and MMTV-Cre transgenic mice. Interestingly, gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly more frequent in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice than in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(+/+) mice, demonstrating that Cdh1 heterozygosity accelerates the development and progression of gastric adenocarcinoma, in combination with loss of Smad4 and p53. Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice developed gastric adenocarcinomas without E-cadherin expression. However, intestinal and mammary adenocarcinomas with the same genetic background retained E-cadherin expression and were phenotypically similar to mice with both wild-type Cdh1 alleles. Lung metastases were identified in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice, but not in the other genotypes. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation was identified at the invasive tumor front of gastric adenocarcinomas arising in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice. This phenotype was less prominent in mice with intact E-cadherin or Smad4, indicating that the inhibition of β-catenin signaling by E-cadherin or Smad4 downregulates signaling pathways involved in metastases in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice. Knockdown of β-catenin significantly inhibited the migratory activity of Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) cell lines. Thus, loss of E-cadherin and Smad4 cooperates with p53 loss to promote the development and metastatic progression of gastric adenocarcinomas, with similarities to human gastric adenocarcinoma. This study demonstrates that inhibition of β-catenin is a converging node for the antimetastatic signaling pathways driven by E-cadherin and Smad4 in Pdx-1-Cre;Smad4(F/F);Trp53(F/F);Cdh1(F) (/+) mice, providing novel insights into mechanisms for gastric cancer metastasis.

MATERIALS
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