• Home
  • Search Results
  • Volatile compounds of Viola odorata absolutes: identification of odorant active markers to distinguish plants originating from France and Egypt.

Volatile compounds of Viola odorata absolutes: identification of odorant active markers to distinguish plants originating from France and Egypt.

Chemistry & biodiversity (2014-06-18)
Laure Saint-Lary, Céline Roy, Jean-Philippe Paris, Pascal Tournayre, Jean-Louis Berdagué, Olivier P Thomas, Xavier Fernandez
ABSTRACT

Absolutes isolated from Viola odorata leaves, valuable materials for the flavor and fragrance industry, were studied. Violets are mainly cultivated in France and Egypt and extracted locally. The absolutes of the two origins showed different olfactory profiles both in top and heart notes, as evidenced by sensory analysis. The aims of this study were i) to characterize the volatile compounds, ii) to determine the odorant-active ones, and iii) to identify some markers of the plant origin. Two complementary analytical methods were used for these purposes, i.e., headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using different fiber coatings followed by GC/MS analysis and gas chromatography - olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS) applied to violet leaf extracts. From a total of 70 identified compounds, 61 have never been reported so far for this species, 17 compounds were characterized by both techniques (with seven among them known from the literature), 23 compounds were solely identified by HS-SPME GC/MS (among them only two being already mentioned as components of violet absolutes in the literature), and, finally, 30 compounds were only identified by GC-O/MS. According to the HS-SPME GC/MS analyses, ethyl hexanoate and (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienol were specific volatile compounds of the sample with French origin, while (E,E)-hepta-2,4-dienal, hexanoic acid, limonene, tridecane, and eugenol were specific of the samples with Egyptian origin. Additional compounds that were not detected by HS-SPME GC/MS analysis were revealed by GC-O analyses, some of them being markers of origin. Pent-1-en-3-ol, 3-methylbut-2-enal, 2-methoxy-3-(1-methylethyl)pyrazine, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde, β-phenethyl formate, and 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine revealed to be odorant markers of the French sample, whereas cis-rose oxide, trans-rose oxide, and 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enone were odorant markers of the Egyptian samples.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, anhydrous, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, ACS spectrophotometric grade, 95.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, anhydrous, denatured
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, HPLC/spectrophotometric grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Divinylbenzene, technical grade, 80%
Sigma-Aldrich
Methyl salicylate, ReagentPlus®, ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Eugenol, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Lysine monohydrochloride, reagent grade, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Linalool, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Eucalyptol, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Lysine monohydrochloride, from non-animal source, meets EP, JP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 98.5-101.0%
Supelco
Dehydrated Alcohol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, ACS reagent, prima fine spirit, without additive, F15 o1
Sigma-Aldrich
Eugenol, natural, ≥98%, FG
Supelco
Eucalyptol, analytical standard
Supelco
Linalool, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Tridecane, ≥99%
Supelco
L-Lysine monohydrochloride, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Ethanol solution, certified reference material, 2000 μg/mL in methanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Linalool, ≥97%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Methyl salicylate, ≥98%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Methyl salicylate, analytical standard
Supelco
Methyl salicylate, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Eucalyptol, natural, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Divinylbenzene, technical grade, 55%