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  • Maternal vitamin D deficiency causes smaller muscle fibers and altered transcript levels of genes involved in protein degradation, myogenesis, and cytoskeleton organization in the newborn rat.

Maternal vitamin D deficiency causes smaller muscle fibers and altered transcript levels of genes involved in protein degradation, myogenesis, and cytoskeleton organization in the newborn rat.

Molecular nutrition & food research (2013-08-22)
Daniela Max, Corinna Brandsch, Sarah Schumann, Hagen Kühne, Matthias Frommhagen, Alexandra Schutkowski, Frank Hirche, Martin S Staege, Gabriele I Stangl
ABSTRACT

Epidemiologic data reveal associations between low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and higher risk of falls and muscle weakness. Fetal stage is critical for the development of skeletal muscle, but little information is available on the impact of maternal vitamin D deficiency on muscles of offspring. To investigate the morphology and transcriptome of gastrocnemius muscle in newborns in response to maternal vitamin D deficiency, 14 female rats were fed either a vitamin D₃ deficient (0 IU/kg) or a vitamin D₃ adequate diet (1000 IU/kg) 8 weeks prior to conception, during pregnancy, and lactation. Analysis of cholecalciferol, 25(OH)D₃ and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ show that dams fed the vitamin D deficient diet and their newborns suffered from a relevant vitamin D deficiency. Muscle cells of vitamin D deficient newborns were smaller than those of vitamin D adequate newborns (p < 0.05). Muscle transcriptome of the newborns revealed 426 probe sets as differentially expressed (259 upregulated, 167 downregulated) in response to vitamin D deficiency (fold change ≥1.5, p < 0.05). The effected genes are involved in protein catabolism, cell differentiation and proliferation, muscle cell development, and cytoskeleton organization. Maternal vitamin D deficiency has a major impact on morphology and gene expression profile of skeletal muscle in newborns.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2), Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
4-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ergocalciferol, ≥98.0% (sum of enantiomers, HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ergocalciferol, 40,000,000 USP units/g
Supelco
Vitamin D2 solution, 1 mg/mL in ethanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®
USP
Ergocalciferol, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Ergocalciferol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Vitamin D2 solution, 100 μg/mL in ethanol, 98% (CP)