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Significance of low level infliximab in the absence of anti-infliximab antibodies.

World journal of gastroenterology (2015-02-17)
Bella Ungar, Adi Anafy, Henit Yanai, Yulia Ron, Miri Yavzori, Orit Picard, Ella Fudim, Ronen Loebstein, Uri Kopylov, Yehuda Chowers, Iris Dotan, Rami Eliakim, Shomron Ben-Horin
ABSTRACT

To evaluate the prevalence of double negative (DN) sera and the mechanisms responsible for DN status. Sera of inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with infliximab (IFX) were tested for drug/antibodies to infliximab (ATI) trough levels and the proportion of DN results was compared between a commercially available double antigen ELISA (with labeled IFX as the detection antibody) and an anti-lambda ELISA (with anti-human lambda chain detection antibody). Repeat testing with lower than customary serum dilution (1:10) was performed. Patients with DN status were matched with IFX+/ATI- controls and were followed-up for subsequent development of non-transient ATI to investigate if DN status precedes ATI. Of 67 sera obtained at time of loss of response, only 6/67 (9%) were DN by anti-lambda ELISA compared to 27/67 (40%) with double antigen ELISA (P < 0.001, Fisher's Exact test). Of the latter 27 sera, 22% were also DN by anti-lambda ELISA, whereas 44% were actually IFX positive (IFX+ATI-), 30% were ATI positive (IFX-ATI+) and 4% were double positive (IFX+ATI+). Re-testing using a 1:10 dilution converted most DN results into IFX+ and /or ATI+ status. Patients with DN status had shorter survival free of non-transient ATI compared with matched controls (log rank test, P < 0.001). In 9/30 (30%) of these patients, non transient ATI occurred before and after the event at which the DN serum was obtained, supporting the view that a DN result may represent a particular time-point along the two curves of ATI titer rise and infliximab drug level decline. DN status may result from false negative detection of IFX or ATI by double antigen ELISA, suggesting a transitional state of low-level immunogenicity, rather than non-immunological clearance.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, ≥98% (TLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, ≥98.0% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, tablet, 1 mg substrate per tablet
Supelco
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, standard for GC